The story of Ye Shengtao

The Story of Ye Shengtao

1. Journalist Career

"If someone asks about my profession, I It would be said that my first career was an editor, and my second career was a teacher," said Ye Shengtao. Ye Shengtao has spent much of his life in editing and publishing. Shanghai Commercial Press is the starting point of Ye Shengtao's editing work. He became editor of the library in 1923.

At the end of 1930, Ye Shengtao resigned from the Shanghai Commercial Press and became the editor of Kaiming Bookstore. He started editing Chinese books and children's storybooks.

"Editing is not an easy job." For Ye Shengtao, being an editor is no longer a simple job, but a profession. “There is no room for carelessness in editing, you have to check all the text yourself. Editors have to take their publications, their reporting and their readers seriously.” Editors play an important role in checking the final product . Ye Shengtao believes that "seriousness" is the key to a successful editor. He reiterated this point over and over again in his work.

Ye Shengtao devoted his whole life to editing and publishing. He never ceased to love his "first and last" career. During the Anti-Japanese War, Ye Shengtao moved to Leshan with his family and worked as a professor of Chinese at National Wuhan University. In 1946, he returned to Shanghai and continued his editing career at Kaiming Bookstore. Ye Shengtao's perspective on modern Chinese has promoted the development of modern journalism in China and ushered in a new era of modern publishing.

Ye Shengtao ardently advocates standardizing modern Chinese including standard grammar, rhetoric, vocabulary, punctuation, simplified characters and removal of variant Chinese characters. He also compiled and standardized the Chinese characters in publications and stipulated the Chinese phonetic alphabet scheme. His efforts helped to improve the quality and organization of the editorial work.

Most importantly, Ye Shengtao advocated the use of vernacular Chinese in the field of publishing. Most of his magazines and newspapers use vernacular, which greatly facilitates the reading of reporters and readers. All these contributions have accelerated the development of journalism in China.

Ye Shengtao is an outstanding educator, and he is also a Bole. He educated and discovered many outstanding writers and editors such as Ba Jin (1904-2005), Ding Ling (1904-1986), Dai Wangshu (1905-1950).

The story of Ye Shengtao

On May 30, 1925, a bloody tragedy occurred in Shanghai, known as the May Thirtieth Massacre. about 2000 Shanghai workers and students joined a passionate anti-imperial movement to protest imperialist oppression and demand the complete abolition of unequal treaties. The rebels roared "Down with imperialism!". Workers all over China supported the event with general strikes and collective resistance marches. Then the British police violently suppressed the rebels, resulting in the death of 13 Chinese people in this incident. By June 1, more than 20 Chinese had been killed.

"Who will tell the truth?"

None of the Shanghai newspapers reported the tragedy. The news on the front page is mostly gossip about Chinese Peking Opera actors. Shanghai newspapers declined to mention the incident because of pressure from the authorities. As a reporter, Ye Shengtao publicly criticized, "Why are journalists so ruthlessly turning a blind eye to this horrific murder? Why are they so afraid of the truth? It's ridiculous that no one dares to tell the truth." Zhizhi (1896-1986) co-founded the "Gongli Daily". They disregarded the strong oppression of imperialism and showed the tragedy in a panoramic view, in order to awaken ordinary people with conscience and patriotism. At the same time, it is also to promote the spread of the "May 30th Spirit" in China.

In order to report the truth more, "Gongli Daily" provides a public discussion place called "Social Tribunal" to encourage readers to express their views on society. Ye Shengtao and other editors of Gongli Daily fiercely criticized social injustice. This newspaper played the role of a supervisor of autocracy, and at the same time enlightened the concept of "freedom of the press" in early modern Chinese society.

Due to financial difficulties and disagreements among editors, "Gongli Daily" finally ceased publication 22 days after its founding. Ye Shengtao never stopped pursuing the truth. During the Anti-Japanese War (1937-1945), he participated in the struggle against the Nationalist government and fought for the freedom of the press in democratic countries. He has worked as an editor, editor-in-chief or editor-in-chief in the following newspapers and magazines: "Saturday", "Shanghai Current Affairs News", "Shanghai Minguo Daily", "Literature Weekly", "Gongli Daily", "Guowen Monthly", "Suzhou Review", "Women's Magazine" "Fiction Monthly", "Middle School Students", "Enlightened Youth", "Chinese Writers", "People's Education", "Chinese Language", "Poetry", "Guangming", "Chinese Magazine", "Middle School Students' Wartime Weekly", "Children's Literature".

2. Political career

At the beginning of 1949, at the invitation of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Ye Shengtao arrived in Peiping from Shanghai via Hong Kong and served as the director of the Textbook Editorial Committee of the North China Government; In June, he participated in the preparatory meeting of the New Political Consultative Conference; in July, he participated in the first Cultural Congress and was elected as a member of the National Federation of Literary and Art Circles; in September, he attended the first plenary session of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference.

After the founding of New China, he successively served as the deputy director of the General Administration of Publication and the director of the editorial bureau, the deputy minister of the Ministry of Education and the president and editor-in-chief of the People's Education Publishing House, the consultant of the Ministry of Education, and the Central Research Institute of Literature and History curator;Member of the All-China Literary and Art Circles Joint Committee, consultant of the Chinese Writers Association, etc., and was elected as a representative of the first to fourth sessions of the National People's Congress and a member of the Fifth Standing Committee, a member of the first session of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, and a member of the Fifth Standing Committee Member, vice chairman of the Sixth National Committee and other important positions. In 1962, Ye Shengtao joined the China Association for the Promotion of Democracy, and was elected as the vice chairman of the Democratic Progressive Central Committee at the 1979 Democratic Progressive Fourth Generation Conference. In September 1984, he became the acting chairman of the Democratic Progressive Central Committee.

3. Manner

Mr. Ye Shengtao is an old man in the field of literature, art and education in our country. He is honest and polite. The famous poet Zang Kejia once said: "The five characters of warmth, kindness, respect, frugality, and ease are a kind of virtue in life, and I think Ye Lao has both."

In the 1940s, in the In a famous city where the Minjiang River and the Qingyi River converge, Mr. Ye was once hired by a university as a professor. Originally, it was not the first time for him to teach in a university. He is also a well-known writer, and he has mastered the handles in major bookstores. He can write a few lines about his experience. But after Mr. Ye arrived at school, he only wrote four words in the experience column, "primary school teacher". Although "primary school teacher" is an extremely honorable title in his mind, people can see from this how he does not show off himself and is willing to live in an ordinary soldier. All the friends who know about this matter think that Mr. Ye filled in like this without any pretense, because he has always been sincere and simple, he hates false names the most, and it is shameful to use grandstanding in his life. As the old saying goes, "words are like people". Ye Lao's regular script is flat and natural, while his seal script is round and dignified. He tried his best to avoid what Han Yu called "vulgar books take advantage of their appearance". His behavior is just like the words he writes, he does not seek to please others but has his own pleasing place.

Ye Lao is open-minded, approachable, strong and decisive in handling things, serious and responsible, as always. For example, when compiling lecture notes and writing textbooks, he was not only dissatisfied that some people just copied them, but also pointed out that they must include their own research and their own experience. This claim is a manifestation of his responsible spirit. Another example is the compilation of "yinde", especially for large-scale books. Although many people know that it is beneficial to academic research, they feel that this is the work for others after all, and they can't stand the hard work and monotony of the work process. Refuse to try. However, Ye Lao once used the white text of the copperplate "Thirteen Classics" of the Commercial Press as the original copy, and compiled a huge volume of "Yin De". At the beginning, there were many difficulties and lack of assistants, but since he has determined that this is a work that will benefit the readers, he will work tirelessly for years and months, and will never give up halfway. This is another manifestation of his responsible spirit in his work.

During the Anti-Japanese War, the intellectuals in the ruling area were tortured and persecuted, and there were many poor and sick people. Ye Lao expressed his deep sympathy for the unfortunate experience of the upright patriotic intellectuals. After he left university, he moved his family to live in Chengdu and presided over the publishing work of Kaiming Bookstore. Chengdu is a bustling city and a center where cultural people gather. Here, Ye Lao cares about,Unite many intellectuals who are dissatisfied with the reactionary rule, and point out the bright road of progress for them. He has appeared many times to host symposiums and reports, and Feng Lixiang, Zhu Ziqing and others are all happy to attend the meeting.

Fourth, cultural and educational philosophy

1. "Teaching is for not teaching"

Ye Shengtao has an important influence on the improvement of modern Chinese education . He introduced a brand-new concept to Chinese education, "Students should be taught how to learn, rather than long-term detailed indoctrination of book knowledge." This view breaks through the traditional concept of Chinese teaching that is accustomed to relying heavily on memory and indoctrination. In addition, Ye Shengtao promoted the penetration of critical thinking and made people realize the importance of personal value judgments. He believes that these learning skills should be used to build the foundation of students, and will also be the starting point for students' lifelong learning.

2. Literature is life

Ye Shengtao wrote emotionally in his reflections on real life:

"In memory, I seem to have never written In other words, I can't write about things that are only imagined, but I haven't lost my imagination. I live in cities, towns and villages, and I write in those places. Observed things. As a teacher, I know some life in the education circle, and I also record it. On some fairly basic and superficial levels, I followed the gradual development of the Chinese revolution, and at the same time, I also recorded these things.

Most of his journalism is inspired by people's lives. He believes that literary works are not only used for entertainment, but also a tool to reflect life and inspire readers to think about reality. He feels obligated to let readers know what is really happening around them. That's why he wanted to link literature and journalism. He believes that literary works should also be used to awaken young people's concern and sensitivity to society. This point of view is like a basic principle for journalists to tell the truth. Ye Shengtao also made his lifelong career as a reporter.

3. Readability

Readability is a prominent feature in Ye Shengtao's works. It means that readers perceive and understand the content of the article more efficiently. As a journalist, Ye Shengtao emphasizes the use of words in his works. This is probably because he worked as a teacher for more than 10 years before he became an editor. He believes that articles are made for readers, and at the same time he regards articles as a tool for readers to communicate with authors. A huge problem for writers at the time was that they weren't equipped for great writing skills. Their expressions are imprecise and ambiguous. Only well-educated people can appreciate their articles. The author pays no attention to the importance of practicality. Therefore, literary works are difficult to be accepted by the general public. Ye Shengtao believes that only when a person writes articles that are practical and easy to understand, can he write only some elegant works. An article is useless if the reader does not understand what it is about.

4. Realism

Realism: the mirror of life

Realism is the most distinctive feature of Ye Shengtao. Ye Shengtao is one of the pioneers of realistic writing. His works are like a mirror, reflecting the dark side of society and human nature.

Because he is an educator, in Ye Shengtao's works, he describes many intellectuals, many of whom are exploited, people at the bottom of society who have no ability to resist. Ye Shengtao has always reflected the truth and reality in his works. He expressed his democratic and socialist ideas in his novels such as "The Fire", "Under the Line" and "The Scarecrow". These articles focus on the miserable lives of people at the bottom of society. His acclaimed novel "Ni Huanzhi" chronicles the tragic life of an intellectual. ,

Ye Shengtao found that many people in New China are selfish, indifferent, hypocritical and conservative. People give up their own life value for a stable life. Ye Shengtao satirizes these people in his works. He expressed his dissatisfaction, hoping to awaken people's consciousness and face up to these social ills. Ye Shengtao not only writes stories, but also reports on the fallacies of society. His works are not for entertainment, but to fill people's spare time with cognition and thinking about reality. "...The basis of writing is a pair of insightful and observant eyes, but my eyes are not very insightful...Of course, it is not necessary to train one's eyes for the purpose of writing. For the training of eyes, it is In order to gain insight into reality and enrich life.

5. Writing official documents

On June 20, 1983, Mr. Ye wrote a special article "Everyone should pay attention to improving the quality of official documents". How to improve the quality of practical writing. Mr. Ye asked everyone to keep in mind a sentence: "People understand your policies, policies, specific measures, etc., all depend on the written language you write on official documents, so the written language must not be sloppy." Mr. Ye is very Emphasis: Writing must be "clear and smooth", that is, "you must think clearly about the meaning you want to express. I didn't think about it clearly, even the articles couldn't be clear and fluent. If you think about it clearly, the organizational structure of the official document is naturally the organizational structure of the meaning itself, so you can only write it down in order to be orderly. Only such official documents can be understood by others. "Secondly, Mr. Ye believes that we need to work hard in all aspects of grammar, rhetoric and logic." Not just reading some books, but especially paying attention to it in practice. "Ye Lao means that we should be good at turning the knowledge in books into our own practice, and be able to skillfully apply it to speaking and writing articles.

Ye Lao believes that improving the quality of writing, "The words must be well thought out and correct, and only when I take them out can I express my opinion. Therefore, in writing, we "should do our best to make sure that we can never change a word, and we must never go out and refuse to accept the goods."

6. Improving the style of writing

Mr. Ye has repeatedly discussed the issue of style of writing in writing."Writing Style"; "Where Are the Problems of Writing Style" and "How to Improve Writing Style" in 1958; "Writing for Listening" in 1959; "Improving Style of Writing" in 1961; "Correcting Style of Writing" in 1979, etc. Ye Lao believes: "The style of writing is the style of work, and it is also the style of thinking", "It is everyone's business to correct the style of writing", "I am talking about everyone, not limited to reporters and writers, anyone who writes some manuscripts, writes some manuscripts, and even writes a letter. Letters, people who write a note, are all included. The style of writing is the wind, and the wind blows and blows and affects each other. Therefore, only when everyone blows a good and correct wind can we promote each other and improve together.” .

How to improve the style of writing? First of all, Mr. Ye is opposed to telling lies and talking empty words, including the party stereotypes and foreign stereotypes that still have influence. "To tell lies is to speak insincerely, to speak empty words is to say nothing," and "on the two points of telling lies and empty words, the spirit of 'Party stereotyped writing and foreign stereotyped writing' is interlinked." Secondly, Ye Lao also emphasized the word style. Because writing, especially practical writing, we must pay special attention to "intentionally show it to the public". Mr. Ye vigorously appealed to "write letters for the sake of the recipients, for the sake of those who discuss the manuscript when writing a manuscript; for the sake of typists and typesetters when writing manuscripts for printing and typesetting." Again, Mr. Ye repeatedly emphasized that to improve the writing style, we should strive to enrich ourselves, including ideological understanding and expression skills, and strive to make the articles correct, clear, and vivid.

7. Language and rhetoric

Ye Shengtao's language is concise and touching, and he is famous for his ability to express himself with appropriate words. Ye Shengtao emphasized feeling and emotion in his reports. The characters are vivid and vivid in Ye Shengtao's pen, and he has a deep insight into the inner world of the characters. Well-known writer Zhao Jingshen praised Ye Shengtao as an anomaly in the writing world, possessing outstanding and amazing talents. His beautiful essays have survived in the world with lasting beauty. The emotions and feelings he expresses form the basis of truth and reality, and give his writing its power. "Emotion is like a flickering light, but the narrative is eye-catching because of this light," said Ye Shengtao. To a certain extent, this conversation shows that Ye Shengtao is not only a good storyteller, but also an artist.

8. Foreign language elements

Ye Shengtao's realistic writing style has become the object of many writers to emulate. He admits that reading the works of some western novelists has greatly helped his writing, "If I hadn't read English, if I hadn't been exposed to English reading materials, I wouldn't have written novels." His works are reflective and speculative. These do not rely on perception, but on actual and objective observation. Ye Shengtao is not only a writer, but also a journalist. The observation of reality became the source of his writing, which created a new world for modern Chinese literature.

V. Literary works and their characteristics

Ye Shengtao's novels mainly expose the dark inside story of the old Chinese education circle, and point the finger of criticism through the education circle entireThe old society is the keynote of Ye Shaojun's "educational novels". He reflected the poor and miserable living conditions of the lower intellectuals with his immersive feelings and sympathy. At the same time, he also has a severe dissection and examination of the teachers who are part of the intellectual class.

The outstanding artistic achievement of Ye Shaojun's novels lies in his calm observation and objective description of "grey life", which shows distinct characteristics of realism. The writer's cool and objective style does not exclude his inner enthusiasm and subjective opinions. Calm observation and objective description are the most prominent factors in Ye Shaojun's novel style. With a pair of penetrating world-viewing eyes, he calmly stares at the insulted and injured who are crouching in a dark corner of old China. His heart is full of compassion, but when he writes, he hides it, is cold and reserved, and the meaning often appears outside the words, and the emotion is not revealed in the text.

Both sympathy and irony are the basic characteristics of Ye Shaojun's pens for ordinary intellectuals. The author can't understand the intellectuals who are under the pressure of life. Li, don't want to stab it again, hoping that they will change; but he also knows their joys and sorrows. The reasons for their bad performance are complicated, and sometimes they cannot control their own destiny. Therefore, while ridiculing, he unambiguously points his pen through these people and points to the dark reality system behind them, thus making his critical realism reach a certain depth.

There are roughly two types of images of young intellectuals in Ye Shaojun's novels:

One is the humble and vulgar type. Its representatives are Mr. Wu in "Fan" and Mr. Pan in "Mr. Pan in Distress".

The second is integrity and ideal type. Its representatives are Ding Yusheng in "In the City", Mr. Guo in "Resistance", and the most typical one is Ni Huanzhi in "Ni Huanzhi". Among them, "Ni Huanzhi" is contradictoryly called "carrying the tripod".

The structure is changeable, good at layout, and the ending is full of aftertaste, which is another aspect of Ye Shaojun's novel style.

There is no trace of Ye Shaojun's reference to foreign novels. His novels are neat, rigorous, plain, and pure, with neither European elements nor half-literary phenomena. Ye Shaojun's literary language does not have the European atmosphere that May Fourth writers often have. His profound classical literary accomplishment and serious and down-to-earth writing attitude make Ye Shaojun's literary works contribute to the standardization, purity and health of modern Chinese.

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